When PowerShellGet v1 fails to install the NuGet Provider

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Recently there’s been a number of users who have encountered a particular bug with PowerShellGet 1.0.0.1 in Windows PowerShell.
This bug occurs when you try to to use a PowerShellGet cmdlet that is dependent on PackageManagement,
including cmdlets such as Find-Module, Install-Module, Save-Module, etc. Running any of these cmdlets will prompt you to install
the NuGet provider that both PowerShellGet and PackageManagement are dependent on. Even though the prompt offers two ways to
install the provider– you can run ‘Y’ to have PowerShellGet automatically install the provider, or you can run
‘Install-PackageProvider’ yourself– both of these suggestions fail.

Unable to find package provider

But, again, even when attempting to explicitly install the package provider, the process command fails.
Unable to install package provider

The earliest version of PackageManagement (version 1.0.0.1) did not ship with the NuGet provider, so any use of PowerShellGet also required that the NuGet provider be bootstrapped or explicitly installed. Understandably, it can be a source of deep frustration when the tool you use to install packages is dependent on a package that it cannot install.

The underlying issue here is that the remote endpoint used to bootstrap the provider requires TLS 1.2 and the client may not have it enabled. The two options below should help you resolve any issues encountered when attempting to install the NuGet provider and get back up and running again with PowerShellGet!

How to find the versions you’re using

You can find out what version of PowerShellGet and PackageManagement you’re using by running:

Get-Module PowerShellGet, PackageManagement -ListAvailable

The output will be order by priority, so if multiple paths are displayed, the top first path will be the one that gets referenced during an import.

If the version of PackageManagement you’re using is 1.0.0.1 then this issue will likely apply to you.

Option 1: Change your TLS version to 1.2

The easiest thing to do here is to update the TLS version on your machine. It’s highly recommended to use this option, but if necessary you can manually install PackageManagement as outlined under Option 2.

If you only want to update the current PowerShell session you can run:

[Net.ServicePointManager]::SecurityProtocol = [Net.SecurityProtocolType]::Tls12

After running this command you can run

[Net.ServicePointManager]::SecurityProtocol

To validate that TLS12 is being used.
Once TLS 1.2 is enabled, you can successfully run the original command.

If you prefer to update your client so that you don’t need to run the command above in every PowerShell session, you can follow the instructions laid out here.

Option 2: Manually update PackageManagement

You can also update PackageManagement to a version that ships with the NuGet provider– that is PackageManagement 1.1.0.0 or later.

Simply go to the PackageManagement package page on the PowerShell Gallery and under “Installation Options”, click on the “Manual Download” tab and then “Download the raw nupkg file”.

Manual Download Options

You can then go to your downloads folder and unzip the .nupkg.

You can then move the folder into your modules path. To find out what this specific path is, follow the steps specified in “How to find the versions you’re using” above. Use the first path listed.

Get-Module PackageManagement

Create a folder under the PackageManagement directory listed here. This new folder should have the same name as the PackageManagement version that was downloaded. For example, in the case above, under “C:Program FilesWindowsPowerShellModulePackageManagement” you would create a directory named “1.1.0.0”. You can then place the contents of the unzipped nupkg into this newly created version directory.

After doing this, start a fresh session of PowerShell or run:

Import-Module PackageManagement -Force

You’re good to go

After completing either option 1 or 2 you should find your issue resolved. If not feel free to reach out via GitHub or Twitter.

The post When PowerShellGet v1 fails to install the NuGet Provider appeared first on PowerShell Team.

RedLine Stealer Delivered Through FTP, (Thu, Jan 20th)

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Here is a piece of malicious Python script that injects a RedLine[1] stealer into its own process. Process injection is a common attacker’s technique these days (for a long time already). The difference, in this case, is that the payload is delivered through FTP! It’s pretty unusual because FTP is today less and less used for multiple reasons (lack of encryption by default, complex to filter with those passive/active modes). Support for FTP has even been disabled by default in Chrome starting with version 95! But FTP remains a common protocol in the IoT/Linux landscape with malware families like Mirai. My honeypots still collect a lot of Mirai samples on FTP servers. I don't understand why the attacker chose this protocol because, in most corporate environments, FTP is not allowed by default (and should definitely not be!).

0.0.0.0 in Emotet Spambot Traffic, (Wed, Jan 19th)

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Introduction

Emotet often uses information from emails and address books stolen from infected Windows hosts.  Malicious spam (malspam) from Emotet spoofs legitimate senders to trick potential victims into running malicious files.

Additionally, Emotet uses IP address 0.0.0.0 in spambot traffic, possibly attempting to hide the actual IP address of an Emotet-infected host.

This ISC diary reviews the spoofed 0.0.0.0 address used in a recent Emotet infection from Tuesday 2022-01-18.


Shown above:  0.0.0.0 in DNS queries from an Emotet-infected host.

Scenes from an infection

Both Emotet botnets (dubbed by researchers as "epoch 4" and "epoch 5") resumed activity after the recent holiday season, and malicious spam started approximately one week ago on Tuesday 2022-01-11.

Most Windows hosts I've infected with Emotet in my lab will start spamming within an hour or less after the initial infection.  Refer to the images below for activity from a recent Emotet infection on 2022-01-18.


Shown above:  Screenshot from malspam pushing Emotet on Tuesday 2022-01-18.


Shown above:  Web page from link in the malspam.


Shown above:  Example of downloaded Excel spreadsheet for Emotet.

Enable macros in a downloaded spreadsheet, and they will infect a vulnerable Windows host.  This is standard operating procedure for Emotet.


Shown above:  Traffic from an infection filtered in Wireshark.


Shown above:  Spambot activity started approximately 27 minutes after the initial infection.

Emotet spambot traffic using 0.0.0.0

Right as the spambot activity starts, the following DNS queries are made using domains related to spam filtering:

  • 0.0.0.0.spam.abuse.ch
  • 0.0.0.0.b.barracudacentral.org
  • 0.0.0.0.bl.mailspike.net
  • 0.0.0.0.spam.dnsbl.sorbs.net
  • 0.0.0.0.zen.spamhaus.org

Similar DNS queries, but without the 0.0.0.0, are generated during Trickbot infections.  However, Trickbot uses the infected host's public IP address data in the DNS query.  Here is an example from analysis of a Trickbot sample (scroll down to the "Domains" list).


Shown above:  0.0.0.0-related DNS queries from an Emotet-infected host.

In addition to DNS queries, Emotet uses 0.0.0.0 during SMTP communications.  This happens whenever an Emotet-infected host tries sending malspam to a targeted mailserver.  The SMTP command is EHLO [0.0.0.0].


Shown above:  SMTP traffic using EHLO [0.0.0.0].

This attempt does not hide the actual IP address of an Emotet-infected host, because it still appears elsewhere in the SMTP traffic (blurred in the above image, for example).  But 0.0.0.0 can be an indicator of emails pushing Emotet or other malware.


Shown above:  Example of Emotet malspam with 0.0.0.0 in the email headers.

Final words

While 0.0.0.0 is an indicator for Emotet or other malware, you can find up-to-date indicators for Emotet malware samples, URLs, and C2 IP addresses at:

Brad Duncan
brad [at] malware-traffic-analysis.net

(c) SANS Internet Storm Center. https://isc.sans.edu Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 United States License.

Phishing e-mail with…an advertisement?, (Tue, Jan 18th)

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Authors of phishing and malspam messages like to use various techniques to make their creations appear as legitimate as possible in the eyes of the recipients. To this end, they often try to make their messages look like reports generated by security tools[1], responses to previous communication initiated by the recipient[2], or instructions from someone at the recipients organization[3], just to name a few. Most such techniques have been with us for a long time, however, last week I came across one that I don’t believe I’ve ever seen before – inclusion of what may be thought of as an advertisement in the body of the message.

10 Most Popular Targeted Ports in the Past 3 Weeks, (Sun, Jan 16th)

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A review of all inbound connection over the past 3 weeks against my honeypot shows the top 2 targeted services were no surprise; a large amount of SSH (22, 2222) activity followed by Telnet (23) which Shodan still identifies over 2.7M hosts exposed to the Internet.

I previous did a diary [5,6] comparing SSH ports & banners as well as Telnet and RDP [7] on which the type of activity being logged hasn't really changed over time. One port that I was surprised to see as part of my top 5 was 6379, "Redis is an open source (BSD licensed), in-memory data structure store, used as a database, cache, and message broker."[8

Indicators

218.92.0.202 (12,081)
159.223.46.162 (11,814)
218.92.0.203 (10,138)
185.36.81.60 (4,554)
213.100.222.21 (1,867)
92.255.85.135 (1,550)
161.35.77.239 (1,499)
92.255.85.237 (1,479)
185.161.70.44 (1,238)
128.199.116.10 (1,202)

[1] https://www.shodan.io/search?query=port:23
[2] https://www.shodan.io/search?query=port:22
[3] https://www.shodan.io/search?query=port:2222
[4] https://www.shodan.io/search?query=port:6379
[5] https://isc.sans.edu/diary/24724
[6] https://isc.sans.edu/diary/23201
[7] https://isc.sans.edu/diary/26492
[8] https://redis.io/topics/introduction

———–
Guy Bruneau IPSS Inc.
My Handler Page
Twitter: GuyBruneau
gbruneau at isc dot sans dot edu

(c) SANS Internet Storm Center. https://isc.sans.edu Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 United States License.

Use of Alternate Data Streams in Research Scans for index.jsp., (Fri, Jan 14th)

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Our network of web application honeypots delivered some odd new URLs in the last 24 hrs:

/index.jsp::$DATA
/jsp/index.jsp::$DATA
/cgi-bin/index.jsp::$DATA
/cgi-bin/jsp/index.jsp::$DATA
/demo/../index.jsp::$DATA
/demo/../jsp/index.jsp::$DATA
/scripts/index.jsp::$DATA
/scripts/jsp/index.jsp::$DATA

I am not 100% sure what these scans are after, but my best guess right now is that they are attempting to bypass filters using NTFS alternate data streams.

The Windows NTFS file system includes the ability to connect to alternate data streams. This has been documented in the past as a technique to hide data or to bypass URL filters [1][2].

In this case, the scans originate from %%ip:64.39.106.87%% , an IP associated with vulnerability scanning company Qualys. It appears to be hunting for index.jsp, a default for Java applications. Inside the cgi-bin or scripts directory, it may very well lead to code execution and may be protected by a WAF that the attacker attempts to bypass. I assume that right now, this is likely just a Qualys research project, but a good reminder to double-check your URL filters 

Any other ideas? Let me know.

[1] https://owasp.org/www-community/attacks/Windows_alternate_data_stream
[2] https://owasp.org/www-community/vulnerabilities/Unrestricted_File_Upload


Johannes B. Ullrich, Ph.D. , Dean of Research, SANS.edu
Twitter|

(c) SANS Internet Storm Center. https://isc.sans.edu Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 United States License.

A New AWS Console Home Experience

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If you are reading this blog, there is a high chance you frequently use the AWS Management Console. I taught AWS classes for years. During classes, students’ first hands-on experience with the AWS Cloud happened on the console, and I bet yours did too.

Until today, the home page of the console showed your most recently used services and a set of static links organized in sections, such as Getting Started with AWS, Build a Solution, or Explore AWS with links to training courses. However, we learned from our data that their usage is very different depending on your profile. You also told us it is cumbersome and time-consuming to navigate to different parts of the console to get an overview of important information for you.

We listened to your feedback, and I’m happy to announce a redesigned home page for the AWS Management Console. This new home page experience includes dynamic content, can be customized, and includes data from multiple AWS Regions.

The screenshot below shows the default view of this new console home page:

New console default layout

New console homepage action

The new Console Home is made of widgets. I may choose which widget to display on the page and where to include it. I may use the actions in the Actions drop down to customize my home page.

I may move and arrange widgets on the home page to organize the content as I want. When I click on the three little dots on the widget title bar, I may choose to remove the widget or resize it. I have the choice between Regular view and Extended view.

New console resize widget

At launch, the console provides eight widgets, and we will add more over time. Three widgets provide me with static links to learn how to build a solution or to explore AWS (Welcome to AWS, Build a Solution and Explore AWS). The other five are dynamic; their content depends on the usage of AWS by my applications and infrastructure:

  • AWS Health: this widget provides information on important events and changes
  • Cost and usage: this widget provides an overview of service costs, with a break down per AWS service.
  • Favorites: this widget shows a list of services that I have bookmarked
  • Recently visited: this widget provides the list of top recently visited services
  • Trusted Advisor: this widget provides recommendations to follow AWS best practices

AWS News Console List of widgets

As usual, we pay attention to the importance of not disturbing existing workflows and habits. You can use the new Console Home after opt-in. You can revert back to the old console home with a simple click.

This new Console Home is the first step to bring you more relevant content on this very first page you see every day. Stay tuned for more.

The new Console Home is available today in all AWS Regions at no additional cost. Go and customize your console homepage today.

— seb

A Quick CVE-2022-21907 FAQ (work in progress), (Wed, Jan 12th)

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1 – When will an exploit be available?

Who knows. Microsoft rates the exploitability as "Exploitation More Likely". I suggest you patch this week.

2 – Which versions are affected?

Microsoft's advisory is a bit oddly worded. But at this point, my best read of it is: The vulnerable code was introduced in Windows Server 2019 and Windows 10 version 1809. But these versions of Windows had a registry key set by default disabling the feature. All later versions are vulnerable "out of the box". For Windows Server 2019 and Windows 10 Version 1809, the "HKLM:SystemCurrentControlSetServicesHTTPParameterEnableTrailerSupport" is set to 0 by default disabling trailers. You can check this registry value in Powershell (thanks Rob)l: 

Get-ItemProperty  "HKLM:SystemCurrentControlSetServicesHTTPParameters" | Select-Object EnableTrailerSupport

3 – Am I vulnerable if I do not have IIS enabled?

Possibly. This is NOT an IIS vulnerability, but a vulnerability in http.sys. http.sys is probably best described as the core HTTP engine inside IIS. But other software using http.sys and possibly exposing the vulnerability: WinRM (Windows Remote Management), WSDAPI (Web Services for Devices) for example expose http.sys. For a quick list of processes using http.sys, try:

netsh http show servicestate

4 – Does a web application Firewall help?

Likely yes. You could start (at your own risk) to just block requests with trailers. Maybe log them first to see if you see legitimate uses (let us know what uses them and how). For details, ask your web app firewall vendor.

5 – Was there a similar severe vulnerability in the past?

In 2015, we had a similar fire drill for CVE-2015-1635 (MS15-34). Maybe you kept notes? They will come in handy now. This Range header vulnerability never amounted to much.

6 – What are these Trailers about anyway?

Trailers are defined in RFC7230. They only make sense if "Transfer-Encoding: chunked" is used. With chunked encoding, the body of a request or response is transmitted in small chunks. Each chunk is preceded by a length in bytes. The idea behind this is that you may not know as you start sending a message how long it will be. In addition, chunked encoding does allow the sender to delay sending headers until the body is sent. These become "trailers". Here is a quick sample request:

POST / HTTP/1.1
Host: testing
Content-Type: text/plain
Transfer-Encoding: chunked
Trailer: X-Test

3
ABC
0
X-Test: 123

The RFC states that "the sender SHOULD generate a Trailer header" suggesting it is not mandatory. This may make filtering more difficult if an exploit does not use a Trailer header (again: I am speculating what an exploit may look like. But having a trailer without a corresponding trailer header may cause some confusion).


Johannes B. Ullrich, Ph.D. , Dean of Research, SANS.edu
Twitter|

(c) SANS Internet Storm Center. https://isc.sans.edu Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 United States License.

New – Amazon EC2 Hpc6a Instance Optimized for High Performance Computing

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High Performance Computing (HPC) allows scientists and engineers to solve complex, compute-intensive problems such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD), weather forecasting, and genomics. HPC applications typically require instances with high memory bandwidth, a low latency, high bandwidth network interconnect and access to a fast parallel file system.

Many customers have turned to AWS to run their HPC workloads. For example, Descartes Labs used AWS to power a TOP500 LINPACK benchmarking (the most powerful commercially available computer systems) run that delivered 1.93 PFLOPS, landing at position 136 on the TOP500 list in June 2019. That run made use of 41,472 cores on a cluster of Amazon EC2 C5 instances. Last year Descartes Labs ran the LINPACK benchmark again and placed within the top 40 on the June 2021 TOP500 list with 172,692 cores on a cluster of EC2 instances, which represents a 417 percent performance increase in just two years.

AWS enables you to increase the speed of research and reduce time-to-results by running HPC in the cloud and scaling to tens of thousands of parallel tasks that wouldn’t be practical in most on-premises environments. AWS helps you reduce costs by providing CPU, GPU, and FPGA instances on-demand, Elastic Fabric Adapter (EFA), an EC2 network device that improves throughput and scaling tightly coupled workloads, and AWS ParallelCluster, an open-source cluster management tool that makes it easy for you to deploy and manage HPC clusters on AWS.

Announcing EC2 Hpc6a Instances for HPC Workloads
Customers today across various industries use compute-optimized EFA-enabled Amazon EC2 instances (for example, C5n, R5n, M5n, and M5zn) to maximize the performance of a variety of HPC workloads, but as these workloads scale to tens of thousands of cores, cost-efficiency becomes increasingly important. We have found that customers are not only looking to optimize performance for their HPC workloads but want to optimize costs as well.

As we pre-announced in November 2021, Hpc6a, a new HPC-optimized EC2 instance, is generally available beginning today. This instance delivers 100 Gbps networking through EFA with 96 third-generation AMD EPYC™ processor (Milan) cores with 384 GB RAM, and offers up to 65 percent better price-performance over comparable x86-based compute-optimized instances.

You can launch Hpc6a instances today in the US East (Ohio) and GovCloud (US-West) Regions in On-Demand and Dedicated Hosting or as part of a Savings Plan. Here are the detailed specs:

Instance Name CPUs* RAM EFA Network Bandwidth Attached Storage
hpc6a.48xlarge 96 384 GiB Up to 100 Gbps EBS Only

*Hpc6a instances have simultaneous multi-threading disabled to optimize for HPC codes. This means that unlike other EC2 instances, Hpc6a vCPUs are physical cores, not threads.

To enable predictable thread performance and efficient scheduling for HPC workloads, simultaneous multi-threading is disabled. Thanks to AWS Nitro System, no cores are held back for the hypervisor, making all cores available to your code.

Hpc6a instances introduce a number of targeted features to deliver cost and performance optimizations for customers running tightly coupled HPC workloads that rely on high levels of inter-instance communications. These instances enable EFA networking bandwidth of 100 Gbps and are designed to efficiently scale large tightly coupled clusters within a single Availability Zone.

We hear from many of our engineering customers, such as those in the automotive sector, that they want to reduce the need for physical testing and move towards an increasingly virtual simulation-based product design process faster at a lower cost.

According to our benchmarking results for Siemens Simcenter STAR-CCM+ automotive CFD simulation, when the Hpc6a scales up to 400 nodes (approximately 40,000 cores), with the help of EFA networking, it is able to maintain approximately 100 percent scaling efficiency. Hpc6a instance shows 70 percent lower cost compared to c5n, meaning companies can deliver new designs faster and at a lower cost when using Hpc6a instances. This means companies can deliver new designs faster and at a lower cost when using Hpc6a instances.

You can use the Hpc6a instance with AMD EPYC third-generation (Milan) processors to run your largest and most complex HPC simulations on EC2 and optimize for cost and performance. Customers can also use the new Hpc6a instances with AWS Batch and AWS ParallelCluster to simplify workload submission and cluster creation.

To learn more, visit our Hpc6a instance page and get in touch with our HPC team, AWS re:Post for EC2, or through your usual AWS Support contacts.

Channy